The Sun’s Surprising Impact On Your Peepers
By Essilor News
Spring break and summer vacation are synonymous with fun in the sun.
And just like sunscreen protects your skin from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays, your eyes also need protection from UV rays.
The American Optometric Association says just like exposure to UV rays can cause damage to the skin in the form of sunburn, it can also harm the eyes or affect vision. However, 94 percent of people don’t realize the sun can be just as harmful to their eyes as it is to their skin.
The sun casts three types of UV rays. UV-C rays are the least threatening type of ray. They're absorbed by the ozone layer and thus, do not present a health threat. Then there are UV-A and UV-B rays, which the AOA says can have adverse long- and short-term effects on the eyes and vision. These also can lead to an increased risk of skin cancer.
If your eyes are exposed to excessive amounts of UV radiation over a short period of time, you are likely to experience an effect called photokeratitis, or “sunburn of the eye.”
The AOA says this condition may be painful and includes symptoms such as red eyes, a foreign body sensation or gritty feeling in the eyes, extreme sensitivity to light and excessive tearing. Fortunately, this condition is usually temporary and rarely causes permanent damage to the eyes.
However, long-term exposure to the sun’s powerful UV rays can be more serious.
Studies have shown that exposure to small amounts of UV radiation over a period of many years increases the chance of developing cataracts, a clouding of the eye’s lens that affects vision, as well as macular degeneration, the debilitating disease the overtime leads to blindness. Prolonged exposure to the sun may also cause damage to the retina, a nerve-rich lining of the eye that is used for seeing.
Skin cancer on the eyelid is also a concern.
The Skin Cancer Foundation says basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma on the eyelid account for 5 to 10 percent of all skin cancers. Most of these types of skin cancers occur on the lower lid, which receives the most sun exposure.
The sun can also age your eyes. Ninety percent of visible premature aging around the eyes is caused by UV damage.
Since it is not clear how much exposure to UV rays will cause damage, the AOA recommends wearing quality, polarized sunglasses that offer UV protection whenever you’re outdoors – even on cloudy or overcast days. Surprisingly, 40 percent of UV exposure occurs when you’re not in direct, bright sunlight.
The AOA also suggests wearing a hat or cap with a wide brim whenever you spend time outdoors.
To provide adequate protection for your eyes, the AOA says sunglasses should:
• Block out 99 to 100 percent of both UV-A and UV-B radiation
• Screen out 75 to 90 percent of visible light
• Be perfectly matched in color and free of distortion and imperfection
• Have lenses that are gray for proper color recognition
If you’re a fan of the great outdoors, and spend a lot of time in bright sunlight, talk to your eye health professional about sunglass frames that are fitted with wrap style lenses. The added protection helps protect your peripheral vision from the sun’s rays. And don’t forget teens and kids spend a lot of time outdoors (often more than adults) playing sports, so sunglasses, hats with brims, and sunscreen, should be worn whenever possible.
• Eliminate 100% of blinding reflective glare
• Offer the maximum UV protection available of an Eye-Sun Protection Factor (E-SPF) 50+
• Are up to 3 times more scratch resistant than competitive polarized lenses
• Offer the sharpest vision and clarity to see vibrant colors